The symbols 0-9 are from Arabic numerals and have been in use since the 10th century. However, starting around the 4th century BCE, a system of numeration called "Roman Numerals" was used before it was replaced by Arabic numerals in most Western cultures.
The entire history of mathematics can in some way be traced back to the invention of numbers and in particular, the invention of roman numerals. Numbers were developed to make it easier for merchants to do arithmetic; without numbers, they would have had to rely solely on counting. The use of roman numerals was popularized by the Romans and the use of these symbols allowed for easier addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division calculations because each symbol represented a number.
The number system used in ancient Rome is called the Roman numeral. Ancient Romans were the first to use symbols to represent numbers, but they didn't have any of our modern mathematical knowledge. The Roman numeral system was made up of seven basic glyphs: I, V, X, L, C, D, and M. These stand for 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 respectively.